But she had dangerous advisers. Hence William left nothing undone that it was in his power, or in his nature, to do to bring about a complete reconciliation. James's Palace to them, of which they took possession in the spring of In the summer of the same year they resided at Windsor; in and the princess had rusticated at Twickenham Luttrell ; Evelyn ; and see Miss Strickland , xi.
In return the princess endeavoured to show her loyalty to the king's interests. She instructed her servants to vote at the Westminster election in for the candidates agreeable to the king Luttrell , iii. Klopp , vii.
Whatever there may have been wanting now as of old in the personal demeanour of the king, no doubt whatever existed as to his desire to be on terms of amity with the princess and her husband; it was universally felt that her star was at last in the ascendant, and her audience-chamber was now as crowded as it had formerly been deserted Shrewsbury Correspondence , ; cf.
One important point, however, remained in the relations between the king and his sister-in-law, which neither of them was likely to overlook. I do not see he is likely at present to get much by it, not having yet kissed the king's hand; but his reversion is very fair and great. After this crowning favour it is not wonderful that when in the following May arrangements were being made for the government of the country during the king's absence in Flanders, he should have been expected by many to appoint the princess regent.
The next year, , was one of the darkest of William's reign. Germains a corresponding hopefulness prevailed; and King James states that about this time he received a letter from his surviving daughter, asking whether he would permit her to accept the crown should William die, expressing her readiness to make restitution when opportunity should serve, and arguing that a refusal of the crown by her would only remove him the further from the hope of recovering his rights.
Few notices remain of the life of the princess in this and the three following years — Her health continued uncertain: she miscarried in February and again in December , September , and January ; in December she is reported ill of convulsion fits, and in April of the gout. A visit to Tunbridge Wells in the summer of can have conferred no lasting benefit, though in the winter following she took a more decided lead in the amusements of the court, for a time giving a ball every Monday at St.
James's, while the prince followed the fashion and his own inclination by periodical sojourns at Newmarket for all these details see Luttrell. Lady Marlborough continued her chosen friend, and when in Mrs. Freeman's daughters began to be married, it was Mrs. Morley who doubled the dowry of 5, l. Lady Harriet Churchill married the only son of Lord Godolphin, for whom, according to an unauthenticated tradition, the Princess Anne had in her younger days entertained a tender sentiment Mrs.
Thomson , i. Corresponding gifts were made to the younger daughters of the duchess, who married after Anne came to the throne.
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In an arrangement under the king's orders had closely connected the Earl of Marlborough himself with the domestic affairs of the prince and princess. But even the Jacobites could not look in a very grim humour on such a scene as that of the little duke on his mother's birthday heading his company of small soldiers in Hyde Park Hatton Correspondence , ii.
The unsentimental king—partly perhaps for his wife's sake—took a kindly interest in the child, and as early as November bestowed on him a vacant garter. The installation was held with great splendour at Windsor in July Yet all this pomp could not conceal the fact that the health of the little prince was the reverse of good; he escaped the small-pox in May ; but in these years the despatches of the foreign ministers from time to time mention how little reliance was to be placed on the child's vital powers Klopp , vii.
In , however, the Duke of Gloucester was nine years old, and in settling a revenue for life on the king after the peace of Ryswick, parliament took into account among other things the expediency of a distinct household being established for his nephew.
The king accordingly before going abroad in that year appointed Marlborough governor of the prince, and the Bishop of Salisbury preceptor—as he states, much against his own wish, and as his annotator, Lord Dartmouth, states, much against the princess's. At the same time King William appointed the little prince to the command of his own cherished Dutch regiment of footguards. Lady Marlborough's censures on the king's settlement of the expenses of the young duke's household, and her account of his passing quarrel with the princess as to its composition Conduct , — , may be passed by.
Marlborough was at the same time restored to his place in the council and to his military rank and employments, and not long afterwards was made one of the lords justices for conducting the government during the king's absence. But on 26 July of the following year he was taken sick at Windsor—it was again erroneously thought of the small-pox—and on the 29th he died.
The sympathy was very general, and even the French court, after receiving a formal announcement from King William, went into mourning Duke of Manchester , Court and Society from Elizabeth to Anne , ii. Germains, of course, hopes ran higher than ever, and an agent from the Jacobites in England speedily found his way thither. It seems not improbable that the sympathies of the Princess Anne herself now began to flow in this direction, though it may be questioned whether Lord Stanhope is right in assigning to this point of time her letter to her father already noticed Reign of Queen Anne , 9.
At all events there was no personal reason for her favouring the claims of the Electress Sophia of Hanover, more especially as the wishes of the latter seem now and for some time afterwards to have been for the family at St. Germains rather than for herself Klopp , vii. Stanhope , i. In the country there seems at first to have been an expectation or wish that the king should marry again Luttrell , iv. On 12 June the Act of Settlement, which placed the Electress Sophia and her heirs in the succession, received the royal assent. It may be mentioned here that almost immediately after William's death, a charge was bruited about against him of his having intended to exclude Princess Anne from the succession; according to Burnet there was a further rumour that she was to be imprisoned.
An inquiry ordered by the lords ended in a resolution of their house declaring the report groundless and scandalous, and requesting Anne to prosecute its authors Somerville , 8—9; Ranke , vii. James II died at St. Germains on 17 Sept. Under the influence of these events a parliament, in which the tories no longer commanded a majority, was elected. There is no reason to suppose that affection for her father had ever been altogether dead in Anne's heart. But probably King James never saw reason to unsay his words to Lord Peterborough, that he could never have a good opinion of the Prince and Princess of Denmark, or put any confidence in them Original Papers , i.
He had never, largely no doubt because of the difference of creed between him and his daughter, gained an ascendency over her mind, and its constitution was not such as to let it easily fall a prey to remorse. On receiving the news of her father's death she went into mourning and secluded herself Luttrell. She cannot be supposed to have promoted the introduction by the tories into the bill for abjuring the Pretender of a clause making it high treason to compass her death, which clause was unanimously accepted.
The bill passed on the last day of King William's life; on the following morning, 8 March —2, he died. When Queen Anne ascended the throne, the grand alliance, though not yet complete, had been knit, and the country was on the eve of the declaration of war against France actually issued on 4 May following. A tory House of Commons had been followed by one in which parties seemed nearly balanced, but which had given in its adhesion to the policy of King William; in the lords the whig interest was still in the ascendant. On St. George's day, 23 April , Anne was crowned. Three days after her accession the queen made her first speech in parliament.
Marlborough had carried the sword of state before her on the occasion, and the countess had of course accompanied her in her coach. The speech was, however, very warlike in tone, and also referred to the project, recommended by William III shortly before his death, of a union between England and Scotland. Parliament, though enabled by an act passed in the previous reign to sit for six months after the death of the sovereign, could hardly do more than approve the appointment of commissioners for giving effect to the proposal.
Before parliament was prorogued in May with a view to its dissolution 2 July , it had granted to the queen the same revenue as that latterly enjoyed by her predecessor, and she had in return announced her intention to apply , l. Anne did not wait for the election of her first parliament before making a series of appointments, on some of which her heart was set, while others followed almost as a necessary consequence. It was understood that Anne's first wish had been to associate her husband with herself in the regal dignity; but the parallel with her sister's case had not been considered to hold Original Papers , i.
Towards the end of the year, after considerable resistance in the lords, by taking a prominent part in which Sunderland incurred the queen's lasting resentment, a life annuity of , l. Next to her husband the man whom the queen delighted at last to have the opportunity of honouring was of course the Earl of Marlborough.
Three days after her accession he received the long-delayed garter, and on the day following was, in accordance with King William's wish, made captain-general of the English forces at home and abroad, and soon afterwards master of the ordnance. To these offices was added the rangership of Windsor Park, a pleasant sinecure made doubly pleasant by the fact that the hated Portland had had to vacate it.
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The countess was made groom of the stole and mistress of the robes, and received the control of the privy purse. Other favours flowed in rapidly upon the Marlborough family and those connected with it Coxe , i. Luttrell v. Rochester, whose daughter's services were declined, was himself, instead of being placed at the head of the treasury, left in the doubtful position of an Irish viceroy, whose commission had been cancelled by the late king. The rivalry between him and Marlborough soon became patent, and ended in his angrily resigning his office, in which he was succeeded by Ormond.
By Marlborough's advice the treasurer's staff was given to his political alter ego Godolphin. Other changes were made, among which need only be mentioned the appointment of the high-church Earl of Nottingham to one of the secretaryships of state. Several whigs were left in the ministry and household, but from the list of the new privy council the names of the great whig leaders of the late reign were omitted.
Politics apart, the queen seems to have acted generously towards her predecessor's servants Luttrell , v. High-church feeling had of late vigorously revived. She gratified the majority by dismissing from the office of almoner the Bishop of Worcester Lloyd , who was accused of having sought to influence his clergy against the tory candidate in the Worcestershire election. During the summer she had paid a state visit to the headquarters of the high-church party, the university of Oxford, afterwards continuing her progress, on which she was enthusiastically welcomed, to Bath and Bristol.
Intent, however, as the new House of Commons, with Harley as its speaker, was upon church affairs, the war necessarily claimed its first attention. The grand alliance had been strengthened by further additions, but the chief military successes of the year were gained by the English general.
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On 12 Nov. Queen Anne went in state to St. Paul's, the Countesses of Marlborough and Sunderland accompanying her in her coach. After Marlborough's return to England she insisted, notwithstanding the protests of his lady, on raising him to a dukedom she may have been annoyed by the pyramidical illumination at Ludgate, in which his name was placed after Ormond's, Coke , , and on settling upon him for the term of her own life an annual pension of 5, l.
Her wish that this pension should be settled for ever on the title was, however, rejected by the commons, and it was on this occasion that the queen made the offer of a further 2, l. On 4 Nov. The queen was ardently on the side of the bill. The Prince of Denmark, though himself an occasional communicant, had been induced to vote for it. But it had at last to be dropped in the lords.
When, in a rather less rigorous form, it was reintroduced in November , stronger opposition was offered to it by the whigs, and Marlborough and Godolphin, though they voted for it, were less than lukewarm in its favour; and though the queen seems still in her heart to have wished it to pass, the prince absented himself from the division in which it was thrown out by a majority of eleven.
In November it again appeared. This time its defeat in the lords was foreseen, and not averted by the shameless proposal to force it through the lords by tacking it to a land-tax bill. As both Marlborough and Godolphin on this occasion voted against it, there can have been little or no pressure from the queen in its favour. In this very year , however, she had chosen a better way for proving her goodwill to the national church.